The Science Behind Glaze Application: Dipping, Brushing, and Spraying

Glazing pottery is an intricate process that transforms a simple piece of clay into a beautiful, finished work of art. Whether you’re a beginner or a seasoned ceramist, understanding the technical aspects of glaze application can help you achieve consistent and stunning results. Let’s delve into the science behind the three major glaze application techniques: dipping, brushing, and spraying.

The Basics of Glaze Composition

Before we dive into the methods, it’s essential to understand what glaze is. A glaze is a mixture of minerals that, when applied to a clay body and fired, forms a glassy coating. This coating not only enhances the aesthetic appeal of the pottery but also makes it functional by creating a non-porous surface.

Dipping: Relying on Capillary Suction

Dipping is a common method where a piece of bisque-fired pottery is submerged into a bucket of glaze and then withdrawn. This method is highly dependent on a property known as capillary suction, which is the ability of the bisque ware to absorb water from the glaze mixture.

When the pot is dipped:

  1. The porous bisque ware absorbs the water quickly.
  2. As the water is drawn into the clay body, the glaze particles are left behind on the surface.
  3. The pot is then removed, and the glaze dries almost instantly due to the rapid absorption of water by the bisque ware.

This method is efficient and ensures a uniform coat of glaze, but it requires the bisque ware to be of consistent porosity. Variations in bisque firing temperatures can affect this porosity and, consequently, the glaze application. For example, bisque ware fired at lower temperatures (e.g., cone 08) will absorb more glaze than bisque ware fired at higher temperatures (e.g., cone 04), leading to a thicker glaze application.

Brushing: Controlled and Versatile

Brushing is the go-to method for many beginners and those using commercial glazes. These glazes are often sold in pint jars and are formulated with additives that make them suitable for brushing.

The key differences in brushing glazes are:

  1. Suspension Agents: Keep the glaze particles evenly distributed in the liquid, preventing them from settling.
  2. Brushing Mediums: Slow down the absorption of water into the bisque ware, allowing for a smoother and more controllable application.

When brushing:

  1. The glaze is applied with a brush, often in multiple layers to build up the desired thickness.
  2. The additives help prevent the water from being quickly sucked into the bisque ware, unlike dipping glazes.

This method allows for more artistic control, enabling the creation of intricate designs and patterns. However, it requires a steady hand and patience to achieve an even coat.

Spraying: Industrial Precision

Spraying is a technique often used in industrial settings but is also gaining popularity among studio potters for its ability to apply very thin, even coats of glaze.

The process involves:

  1. Atomizing the liquid glaze into fine particles using a spray gun.
  2. The tiny particles are then evenly distributed over the surface of the pottery.

Spraying provides several advantages:

  1. Uniform Application: Achieves a very consistent and even glaze coat.
  2. Control Over Thickness: By adjusting the spray time and distance, potters can control the thickness of the glaze layer.
  3. Efficiency: Ideal for large volumes of work or pieces with intricate surfaces that are difficult to glaze by dipping or brushing.

However, spraying requires proper equipment along with ventilation and safety precautions to avoid inhaling glaze particles. 


Understanding the science behind glaze application—whether through dipping, brushing, or spraying—empowers potters to choose the right method for their specific needs and desired outcomes. Each technique has its unique benefits and challenges, but with practice and attention to detail, potters can achieve beautiful, consistent results. Experiment with different methods and find what works best for your artistic vision and studio setup. Happy glazing!

Want to learn more?  Make sure to check out our YouTube Free Glaze Chemistry Lesson – Ceramic Glaze Application – for more on this topic.  You can also watch Rose makes a test batch of ceramic glaze in Batch, please.  And don’t forget to subscribe to be notified as we add new content.  

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